Recently in By the Author Category
This past December Rolling Rains blog author Scott Rains had some health issues.
His colleagues started a campaign to support his new lifestyle at Go Fund Me.
There is less than $3,500 to get to our goal and Give Scott a Lift. Thanks to the generosity of each of our donors, Scott and Patricia have been able to put down a deposit for the track system.
Please join me in making one final push to invite others to participate in this campaign of caring and gratitude to Scott. If everyone who already donated persuades JUST ONE OR TWO more people to give, we will achieve our goal in no time. Can we wrap this up by June 1?
On New Year's Day 2015 the character of the Rolling Rains site changed due to a diagnosis of two new tumors for Scott Rains.
Rosemarie Rossetti's 3-year-old dream house became instantly useless in 1998 when an 80-foot tree fell on her while she was bicycling.
Paralyzed from the waist down, Rossetti was suddenly faced with inaccessible entries, wall plugs that were too low, counter-tops that were too high, bathroom doors that were not wide enough and shower stalls that were impossible to use without help.
Rossetti has turned that awareness into a career as a speaker, trainer, consultant and writer who promotes accessibility in the home building industry.
She is scheduled to moderate a discussion on "Universal Design" and accessibility at a Jan. 29 Housing and Construction Summit sponsored by the Home Buildings Association of Greater Grand Rapids (HBAGGR) at the Pinnacle Center in Hudsonville.
To test and demonstrate her principles, Rossetti and her husband, Mark Leder, have built a national demonstration home and garden, the Universal Design Living Laboratorywww.udll.com in metropolitan Columbus, Ohio.
For the full article by By see:
Culture in the Further Development of Universal Design
Scott Rains, D. Min
Reprinted from Design for All India:
By now most readers of Design for All India have a healthy grasp of Universal Design. Many, perhaps most, have become highly competent in its application as is evident from the articles appearing in past volumes and today. Beyond technical mastery of the Seven Principles, knowledge of best-of-breed solutions, and familiarity with allied concepts such as Visitability, Adaptive Technology, or anthropometrics there is a cultural component to this design approach that is unquantifiably - but undeniably - transforming Universal Design. By systematically and thoroughly examining this cultural component in the coming decade we will discover the true nature of Universal Design to be social sustainability.
Defining the Cultural Component
There are two ways to define this cultural component.
The first is to take the generally accepted meaning of culture as a social system involving ethnicity, nationality, language, arts, shared values or some combination of these elements to define a coherent and dynamic system. The second is to apply the term culture to that system in relationship to persons with disabilities as a whole (pan-disability culture) or as various sub-groups (blind, deaf, deaf-blind, spinal cord injured, post-polio cultures).
Research into response to Universal Design in this first domain is still in its infancy. A rich body of literature will result from future inquiries into adoption, rejection, and adaptation of Universal Design by cultures as they have been traditionally defined. Such study can provide a complementary approach to other inquiries into disability in the field of Disability Studies.
Historically Universal Design arose in the 1970's as a product of the Disability Rights Movement in the United States. Closely associated with the work and teaching of North Carolina architect and quadriplegic Ron Mace it began to gain widespread acceptance in the 1990's through a dissemination process that has not been well documented. One theme in that documentation will be the interplay between the cultural values embedded in Universal Design, either intentionally or unintentionally, and those held in locations where it is introduced.
Anecdotal evidence indicates integration of Universal Design in Japan's Mitsubishi, Toto, NTT DoCoMo and a uniquely Korean appropriation of Universal Design at Samsung. Reference to the Tao and the principle of balance symbolized in Tae Kuk are being integrated into the approach as applied to product design by the latter. Research by Thai scholar Antika Sawadsri (2006) on affective responses to Universal Design in Tai domestic settings is the first of what ought to be a series of similar studies done around the world. Such a micro-scale look at cultural factors involved in receptivity to Universal Design will provide uniquely targeted guidance to social planners and businesses attempting macro-scale Universal Design projects in the same social conditions.
As successful application and adaptive enculturation of Universal Design occurs there will be impact beyond the predictable further inclusion of persons with disabilities into the economic mainstream. From the earliest conversations leading to what we now know as Universal Design pioneer Elaine Ostroff was involved in the arts and incorporating Universal Design. Other positive secondary effects of adoption will include the importation and fabrication of new materials, dissemination of new designs and new construction methods, and the economic enhancement of those able to consult, design, or build according to a culturally appropriate but inclusive norm as populations age. In areas where an age-inversion causes the numbers of elderly to exceed those of youth, adoption of enculturated Universal Design in infrastructure, products, and services will become necessary not only for social cohesion but as a user demand due to the natural conservatism common with aging.
Defining Universal Design
In order to pursue this research priority and ensure meaningful and generalizable results it is important that researchers share a common definition of Universal Design. That definition is found in the Seven Principles of Universal Design but requires ongoing attention to evolving definitions of disability and to local permutations of Universal Design such as Design for All.
The Principles of Universal Design are:
1. Equitable Use: The design does not disadvantage or stigmatize any group of users.
2. Flexibility in Use: The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities.
3. Simple, Intuitive Use: Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level.
4. Perceptible Information: The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities.
5. Tolerance for Error: The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions.
6. Low Physical Effort: The design can be used efficiently and comfortably, and with a minimum of fatigue.
7. Size and Space for Approach & Use: Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use, regardless of the user's body size, posture, or mobility.
Universal Design is a framework for the design of places, things, information, communication and policy to be usable by the widest range of people operating in the widest range of situations without special or separate design. Most simply, Universal Design is human-centered design of everything with everyone in mind.
Universal Design is also called Inclusive Design, Design-for-All and Lifespan Design. It is not a design style but an orientation to any design process that starts with a responsibility to the experience of the user.
Current trends are toward a functional rather than a medical diagnostic approach to defining disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) reinforces that with its International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF 2001). This aligns well with the third of the three theoretical models of disability - Charity, Medical, and Social (or "Social Interpretation" see Gabel, "Disability Studies in Education".) The latter defines disability as an interaction between function and environment.
Rudiger Leidner of NATKO made a distinction between US conceptualizations of Universal Design and a European reformulation known as Design for All in his 2006 presentation "Tourism Accessible for All in Europe":
"...the main difference between the D[esign] F[or] A[all] idea and similar approaches such as "Universal Design" is that the targeted users should be involved in the process of product development."
The designation as Lifespan Design referred to in the citation from Adaptive Environments above captures the observation that human functionality changes through the natural course of maturation and aging. It reminds designers that the value of a product is not the only its durability through time. Predictable changes in the functional abilities of the user may prove to be more important measures of value. Large-scale changes in the ratio between the young and the old are poised to be socially disruptive in ways that immediate adoption of Universal Design can mitigate.
Studies to determine the culturally contextual rationales for accepting Universal Design will become increasingly essential. Already the narrative behind Universal Design projects for seniors or for people with disabilities differs. Public perception of the social value of publicly-funded Universal Design projects takes on added importance in times of scarcity of public resources.
The aging segment of the population appears to figure more heavily than the disability community in Japan's adoption of Universal Design. While in the US arguably the strongest non-governmental promoter of Universal Design, the non-profit AARP through its Home Design resources, conferences, and workshops educates on the concept without reference to its origins in the Disability Rights Movement or its foundation in disability culture. This appears to be a deliberate marketing strategy to present only images of "healthy" attractive seniors.
These and other examples serve to alert us to the reality that Universal Design applied to infrastructure may equally benefit both seniors and people with disabilities while the political discourse attached to such projects may work to drive a wedge between two groups with common interests and needs.
Culture(s) of Disability
Disability culture or disability cultures offer a second window of inquiry into the meaning and maturation of Universal Design as a global phenomenon.
Some have theorized that while definitions of disability have been imposed by non-disabled persons cultures of disability have risen up to protect the interests, identities, and political voice of those gathered into these categories. Current understandings emphasizing the multiplicity of social categories any individual is involved in and the multifaceted interactive nature of resistance to social movements' demands for change provide a fluid definition of culture and energize artistic production with a disability "voice." Colin Barnes and Geoff Mercer provide an overview of the topic in Chapter 21 of the Handbook of Disability Studies entitled "Disability Culture."
Defining, distinguishing, and uniting disability cultures remains problematic. One can list examples of distinctiveness: deaf culture maintains its own languages, blind culture it own institutions, and mobility impaired culture its own politics.
Conflicts arise when specific design solutions are confused with Universal Design itself.
The usefulness of curbs at corners for orienting blind pedestrians and the necessity of curb cuts for wheelchairs lead some to question the "universality" of some solutions commonly associated with Universal Design. It is important to recall that Universal Design is a design approach not a catalog of solutions or any specific construct such as a ramp or a flashing fire alarm. Universal Design understood as design and not a canon of prescribed solutions is capable of generating outcomes that address the unique needs disability groups with differing functional abilities.
The questions arise for professionals, "Who is responsible for maintaining that clarity of definition at the academic level? At the level of professional discourse? When working with stakeholders and clients?"
Language is a knowledge management system. Careful use of language is called for to both adequately communicate the process of Universal Design and to facilitate competing cultural values existing even within the disability community.
The "Culture" of Construction
The phrase "construction of culture" is commonplace in post-modernist discussions of the nature of culture. Similarly the "construction of disability" is a phrase indicating the social, and thus changeable, nature of the concept and social system known as disability. In such dialogue "avoiding the (re)construction of disability" is a responsibility of those who claim to be working in the interest of social inclusion such as practitioners of Universal Design. Part of that responsibility is to avoid design that stigmatizes.
There are also professional mandates upon those who work with designers in the fabrication phase of products and spaces. We might designate these as part of a "culture of construction" that seeks to resolve all discussion to specifications and measurements that are actionable within their domain of responsibility. The influence of this approach can also manifest from within the disability community.
Examples include accessibility auditor trainings that do not include an introduction to Universal Design principles or to the process and place of design in project development. The results are then evident in accessibility auditing survey tools that proscribe rather than describe. Mandated minimum accessibility standards from building codes are fashioned into check sheets or other proscriptive heuristics for gathering data. This data is then published in directories of building accessibility. The tools are thus unable to capture innovative (universally designed) solutions and the auditors unprepared to recognize them as good design. This self-defeating approach rewards businesses for mere minimum compliance and penalizes those who solve design problems in novel ways.
One museum designer reported a usability study of one of her projects conducted by persons with disabilities. They immediately flagged the lack of the typical (stigmatizing) artifacts of "accessibility": grab bars and tactile navigation in colors, materials, and textures that broke the integrity of the design of the space, Braille captioning that was easily located visually, etc. After an orientation with the designer they agreed that the design's non-traditional integration of handholds, navigation aids, and placement of Braille were superior as well as non-stigmatizing.
The auditors working from an internalized list of "accessibility features" had themselves failed to realize that the designer had achieved both accessibility and avoided reconstructing disability through stigmatized solutions. It must be remembered that even stakeholders with disabilities may need training in the tools such as Universal Design that are available to designers.
The Travel and Hospitality Industry as Locus of Transformation
The travel and hospitality industry will be the site of the next major developments in Universal Design.
A typical legislated strategy for social inclusion employs the language of rights. It mandates access to government properties and services in the name of citizenship, human, or civil rights. It extends the argument to the business sector and mandates compliance through threat of sanction.
Such a strategy is sound and within the purview of government. Yet it is not sufficient.
Persons with disabilities in numerous countries report accessibility requirements that conflict within the same jurisdiction, corruption that allows regulations to be ignored, and a general failure on the part of those regulated to imagine any accommodation beyond the mandated minimum.
A parallel approach is to use the industry's profit motive to achieve accessibility, employment, & attitude change for the benefit of the disability community.
Aside from metropolitan transit and national rail systems the infrastructure of transportation and lodging - of tourism - is under private ownership. In the language of private business the laws protecting the rights of people with disabilities place them in the category of cost center or as legal risks of lawsuits to be managed. While establishing a necessary legal baseline against discrimination such laws evoke a resistance response that, in practice, prevents business from imagining people with disabilities as a lucrative customer base.
Over the past several years the disability community has had some success gaining the attention of the tourism industry with research such as that done by the Open Doors Organization that US travelers with disabilities alone spend an average of $13.6 billion annually on travel.
During this period I have been researching, refining, and promoting a reconciliation of these two approaches to social change where legislative scaffolding sustains the market for profit-based incentive. While some countries may never adopt national civil rights legislation for people with disabilities, approval of the UN Declaration on the Rights of People with Disabilities will radically change the business and legislative ecosystems and raise expectations in the disability community. Tourism remains largely unprepared for the future impact of this UN document. As a global industry that is increasingly being held accountable to social responsibility metrics such as the inverse of Universal Design - Green Design - tourism may become more receptive than governments themselves to accommodating persons with disabilities.
I have proposed to the Echoing Green Foundation the creation of a series of strategically located Centers of Excellence promoting Universal Design within the travel and hospitality industry. We call this application of Universal Design to tourism Inclusive Tourism and Inclusive Destination Development.
Each Center of Excellence will work to standardize the diversity of accessibility laws, disseminate accessibility guidelines for hotels, train travel & hospitality industry staff, and promote the education and hiring of persons with disabilities in the industry. At the local level we will increase accessibility of the tourist destinations hosting the Centers and train a core of persons with disabilities as self-sustaining regional experts in Inclusive Tourism.
Expected outcomes include increased tourism infrastructure accessibility (hotels, airports, and transit systems), greater self-reported social inclusion of people with disabilities and disabled peoples' organizations (DPOs) (i.e. people with disabilities hired in the industry and DPOs contracted as travel industry suppliers), as well as people with disabilities positively portrayed as valued customers marketing by the industry.
This project will engage industry's self-interest in profit by recruiting and training an overlooked workforce, product development for this under-served market, best practices dissemination to an awakening industry, and marketing a new image of disability completing a feedback loop that encourages more in the disability community to travel.
Cultural factors influence the adoption of projects involving Universal Design as well as the development of the approach itself. These cultural factors include social groupings traditionally understood as cultures. They also include the communities of persons with disabilities as an aggregate and as sub-cultures differentiated by disability.
Universal Design, as a product of disability culture, represents an authentic voice of disability culture when understood as a design process and not a catalog of sanctioned and static design solution or "accessibility features."
Yet as a voice competing among other social systems and cultures Universal Design must be clearly articulated and intentionally directed.
One area of promise for shaping the Universal Design of the future is in dialogue with the cultures into which it is introduced. One vehicle for animating such a dialogue is the global travel and hospitality industry operating out of the profit, in addition to the rights and entitlement, motive. A network of Centers of Excellence of Inclusive Tourism and Inclusive Destination Development offers a scalable and sustainable mechanism for the continued development of Universal Design as an authentic voice of the disability community worldwide.
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Dr. Scott Rains writes daily on travel and issues in the tourism industry of interest to people with disabilities. His work appears online at www.RollingRains.com andhttp://withtv.typepad.com/weblog/travel/ . Rains' articles have also appeared in New Mobility, Emerging Horizons, Contours, Accessible Portugal, Audacity, Travel and Transitions, eTur Brazil, Turismo Polibea, [with]TV, and Disaboom among others.
For his research on the topic of Universal Design and the travel and hospitality industry he was appointed as Resident Scholar at the Center for Cultural Studies of the University of California Santa Cruz (2004-05).
He is active as a consultant and speaker. Compiled by advocates of Universal Design in 1997. Participants are listed in alphabetical order: Bettye Rose Connell, Mike Jones, Ron Mace, Jim Mueller, Abir Mullick, Elaine Ostroff, Jon Sanford, Ed Steinfeld, Molly Story, Gregg Vanderheiden. The Principles are copyrighted to the Center for Universal Design, School of Design, State University of North Carolina at Raleigh [USA].The Principles established a valuable language for explaining the characteristics of Universal Design. They are in common use around the world, sometimes with slight modifications, primarily one or two principles grouped together. Source: Adaptive Environments
 One hallmark of disability studies is its adherence to what has been called a "social model of disability" (Abberley, 1987), first suggested by Vic Finkelstein (1980) and other disability rights activists, in which disability is understood as a form of oppression. Although "social model" is the most common usage of the concept, I agree with Vic Finkelstein (2001, ¶. 2) that the phrase "social interpretation" is a better and more inclusive representation of disability studies standpoints. In this paper, I use "social model" to refer to the traditional historical-materialist version of the social interpretation of disability. In contrast, I use "social interpretation" to refer to the wider array of disability theories in disability studies (e.g., disability identity, disability embodiment, disability discourse). As a whole, social interpretations of disability contrast with typical educational views wherein "disability" represents innate individual deficits. In disability studies, the disability-as-deficit notion is referred to as a clinical or medical model and is rejected as the basis for understanding the lived experiences of disabled people because it tends to pathologize difference and rely upon expert knowledge (i.e., physicians, special educators, rehabilitation counselors) to "remediate" difference (Society for Disability Studies, Guidelines for Disability Studies, ¶ 3). Disability Studies in Education: Readings in Theory and Method (2005, New York: Peter Lang) Source:http://www.nl.edu/dse/SusanGabel.htm
 Handbook of Disability Studies, Gary L. Albrecht, Katherine D. Seelman, Michael Bury, 2001 Sage Publications , ISBN 076192874X
 Personal communication, 2004
 Open Doors Organization, 2005
 It [Universal Design] has a parallel in the green design movement that also offers a framework for design problem solving based on the core value of environmental responsibility. Universal Design and green design are comfortably two sides of the same coin but at different evolutionary stages. Green design focuses on environmental sustainability, Universal Design on social sustainability. Source:http://www.adaptiveenvironments.org/index.php?Itemid=3&option=Content
To all readers of the RollingRains.com blog her'ees wishing you a new year full of success and adventure!
Below is the text of the opening keynote of Presentation to ICAT 2007 held at the UN in Bangkok, Thailand. My appreciation to the various ministries of the Thai government, UNESCAP, and several disabled peoples' organizations (DPOs) including Disabled Peoples International - Asia Pacific (DPI-AP) and the Asia Pacific Disability Forum (APDF).
If you'll do a Google search on the Rick Hansen Foundation and the Global Accessibility Initiative, you'll find a map tool where people with disabilities can add their comments on how accessible an area or a destination are for people with wheelchairs and other disabilities. There are very good directories for Australia, the United Kingdom, Scotland and several other countries. But, to make the world more accessible for all of us, the tourism industries have to decide that they're going to make accessibility a part of the data they have available for consumers in all areas of advertisement and promotions and through every vehicle of marketing that the various tourism industries have at their disposal. We have to help the tourism community see that we're a viable market that spends money on travel, and that we are customers to whom they can promote and sell their travel products and destinations.
Editor's Note: Dr. Scott Rains has used his disability, his love of travel, his genuine concern for others in wheelchairs, his goal of making the world more accessible to all people and his doctorate in ministries to create a consulting business. He has considered his disability and identified the advantages and the opportunities that disability affords him to become one of the leading authorities and most sought after experts in this area to make worldwide changes. He also works for the Rick Hansen Foundation, which has as one of its goals to change the world and make it more accessible for anyone with a disability. Part 5 of a 5 part series.
Image via Wikipedia
Por Dr. Scott Rains, firstname.lastname@example.org
Traduzido por Patricia Ribeiro
À medida que a Índia passa a ocupar um lugar central no cenário mundial e mais pessoas querem descobrir o passado e o presente desse país, as viagens para a Índia e na Índia adquirem uma importância nunca vista (e felizmente, os visitantes com deficiência são uma parte crescente desse cenário). O turismo em si é uma indústria geradora de recursos em qualquer país, quer o visitante tenha deficiência ou não. Atender as necessidades de TODOS e tornar as viagens confortáveis deve ser o foco principal da indústria da hospitalidade. O que está sendo feito e o que pode ser feito para receber esta bem-vinda tendência? Devemos ter em mente, porém, que o turismo não se reduz a pontos turísticos. Este artigo explora, portanto, o princípio inerente e os pré-requisitos essenciais que devem governar todos os aspectos do turismo: o Desenho Universal.
"O Turismo Inclusivo é um movimento global para garantir a participação social plena de todas as pessoas com deficiência no turismo, na cidadania, e na contribuição cultural - e, nesse processo, garantir o mesmo para todas as outras pessoas", escreve o Dr. Scott Rains, um ativo defensor do turismo inclusivo. Com este aviso: "Por ser uma pessoa com deficiência que pesquisa, escreve e faz palestras sobre o Turismo Inclusivo enquanto prática e referência para as políticas do turismo, tenho a tendência de ilustrar seu potencial utilizando o turismo com deficiência como exemplo. Naturalmente, aplico o Desenho Universal, enquanto desenho centrado na pessoa, à medida de meu próprio corpo e de suas capacidades". Ele explica que a estratégia para orientar o turismo deve estar em acordo com o Artigo 30 da UNCRPD (Convençao das Nacões Unidas sobre os Direitos da Pessoa com Deficiência).
Dentro de um aquário sobre a minha escrivaninha, um irrequieto peixinho dourado acompanha o progresso de minha caneta sobre a página. Um par de passarinhos engaiolados no canto da sala troca bicadas e conversa em palavras de pássaro cuidadosamente escolhidas. Cada um desses animais têm acesso à minha casa - cada qual dentro de um espaço estritamente definido. Porém, o mero acesso é muito menos que a inclusão. Nenhum deles jamais participará de nossa vida familiar da mesma forma que nossa cachorrinha de estimação, que encara isso como um direito de nascença. O acesso pode ser suficiente para a sobrevivência, mas somente a inclusão torna possível a alegria da participação.
Falta inclusão ao turismo. O artigo 30 da UNCRPD deixa claro que isso não pode continuar assim. A observação à distância, de dentro de um aquário, ou o comentário feito do lado de fora dos espaços e atividades que as pessoas sem deficiência podem usufruir é coisa de animais de estimação, e não de gente. O Turismo Inclusivo é a aplicação sistemática do Design Universal por parte da indústria de turismo e da hospitalidade a cada estágio do ciclo de vida de seu produto, serviço e políticas.
O Turismo Inclusivo começa por uma visão das pessoas como são, em toda a diversidade de suas habilidades. Ele lança um olhar sobre todos os estágios do ciclo da vida humana: crianças, adultos, e idosos. Ele vê todas as pessoas, quer a que anda com uma bengala numa escola, a que usa botas da moda num shopping, ou a que volta do poço da vila carregando um pote de água na cabeça.
É óbvio que uma definição tão concisa desperta questões como, "Por que não 'acessível' ao invés de 'inclusivo'? E: "O que é Desenho Universal?"
Quando as pessoas ouvem a palavra "acessível" ligada ao turismo, elas pensam ter uma boa noção do que isso significa. E aí está o problema.
Quase todo mundo crê saber o que "acessível" significa, mas como o termo nunca foi claramente definido, quase todo mundo inventa sua definição pessoal para ele. Essa é uma receita desastrosa. Se os viajantes e a indústria do turismo não tiverem uma linguagem comum, pode-se imaginar com que frequência surgirão desapontamentos e conflitos. Se os donos de hotéis e a construção civil não tiverem uma forma de descrever as soluções que buscam para o design e a construção, qual será a probabilidade de que ambos os lados cheguem a um resultado satisfatório?
O Turismo Inclusivo, e o conceito relativo a ele, Desenvolvimento do Destino Turístico Inclusivo, têm sido definidos em palestras e em artigos científicos justamente para evitar esses enganos. O termo "inclusivo" refere-se ao conceito de inclusão social - o oposto da exclusão encontrada no estereótipo, na piedade como um substituto para a justiça, e na discriminacão ostensiva.
Um lugar pode ser acessível ao mesmo tempo que as atividades desenvolvidas nele ou as atitudes de quem ali trabalha sejam extremamente excludentes. Um lugar pode até ser feito acessível para um cadeirante de uma forma que impeça o acesso de uma pessoa cega ou de alguém com 2,5 metros de altura.
A inclusão se refere à aceitação ativa de uma pessoa ou de um grupo por outrem. Ela envolve comunicação no plano dos valores e tradições. Ela é um processo cultural de transformação no qual todos os participantes são adequadamente valorizados. As identidades culturais podem permanecer intactas, mas a qualidade da interação expande a capacidade para a tolerância e o entendimento entre todas as partes.
De uma certa forma, o Turismo Inclusivo, como uma abordagem, exemplifica o que de melhor se pode esperar para uma experiência pessoal do turismo e seu impacto social enquanto indústria.
É por isso que o Turismo Inclusivo nunca pode ser dissociado dos sete princípios do Design Universal. Uma abordagem do turismo - uma abordagem que sirva para todas as pessoas com deficiência de modo a não estigmatizá-las e isolá-las ainda mais como objetos de piedade - exige o Design Universal, assim definido: O Design Universal é um sistema para a criação de espaços, objetos, informação, comunicação e políticas a serem usados pela maior gama possível de pessoas operando na maior gama possível de situações sem a necessidade de um desenho especial ou à parte. Simplificando, o Design Universal é o design, centrado na pessoa, de tudo para todos.
O Design Universal também é conhecido como Design Inclusivo, Design para Todos e Lifespan Design ("Design para Toda a Vida"). Ele não é um estilo de design, mas uma orientação para todo processo de criação que parta de uma responsabilidade para com a experiência do usuário. (Fonte: Adaptive Environments)
O Turismo Inclusivo envolve um círculo de comunicação entre os viajantes, os profissionais da indústria do turismo, os responsáveis pela definição de políticas, os designers e construtores como partes interessadas no melhor resultado possível para todos. Esse resultado é previsível e compreensível enquanto produto e qualidade de serviço ao consumidor.
Quando a indústria se mostra hesitante em suprir as necessidades dos consumidores de um modo que elimine a exclusão, pode se tornar necessária a aplicação de políticas de proteção. Porém é preferível descobrir - ou inventar - práticas que se mantenham através dos mecanismos usuais do mercado.
Uma transformação nas atitudes, práticas e design acontece quando os viajantes com deficiência são reconhecidos por seu potencial como clientes rentáveis. Até mesmo o viajante mais relutante ou com a maior deficiência poderá usufruir de uma viagem com sucesso se a indústria do turismo estiver atenta à inclusão a cada passo do caminho. Quando isso ocorre, os viajantes podem saber exatamente como complementar, com sua própria engenhosidade e seus próprios recursos pessoais, o que lhes é oferecido.
Quando a indústria do turismo começa a ponderar seriamente as variações nas capacidades dos indivíduos que ela serve, surgem questões práticas relacionadas à criação de produtos, espaços ou políticas que honrem os indivíduos com diferentes habilidades. A necessidade de princípios que orientem o design e as decisões na construção é uma das razões pela qual o Turismo Inclusivo é indissociável do Design Universal. Nesse caso, são os Sete Princípios do Design Universal que fornecem a visão coerente de excelência na indústria do turismo. Estes são os sete princípios:
- Utilização equitativa: o design não põe em desvantagem ou estigmatiza nenhum grupo de usuários.
- Flexibilidade de utilização: o design se presta a uma vasta gama de preferências e habilidades individuais.
- Utilização simples e intuitiva: o uso do design é de fácil compreensão, independentemente da experiência, conhecimento, habilidade linguística, ou nível corrente de concentração do usuário.
- Informação perceptível: o design comunica eficazmente ao usuário a informação necessária, independentemente das condições ambientais ou das habilidades sensoriais do mesmo.
- Tolerância ao erro: o design minimiza os riscos e as consequências adversas de ações acidentais ou involuntárias.
- Esforço Físico Mínimo: o design pode ser utilizado eficiente e confortavelmente com um mínimo de fadiga.
- Dimensão e espaço de abordagem e de utilização: são oferecidos dimensão e espaço apropriados para a abordagem, acesso, manuseio e utilização, independentemente da estatura, postura ou mobilidade do usuário.
Duas aplicações específicas do Design Universal se desenvolveram desde o surgimento do conceito no início da década de 1970 e da formulação desses princípios em 1997.
A primeira aprofunda significativamente o princípio 4. Essa abordagem é conhecida como Design Universal para Aprendizagem. Ela é mais apropriada para a indústria do turismo no planejamento de treinamento profissional ou no design de material voltado para a educação do consumidor ou a promoção de produtos. O maior divulgador do Design Universal para Aprendizagem é o Trace Center na Universidade de Wisconsin-Madison.
A segunda abordagem só foi formulada recentemente. Ela é focada num aspecto específico do Turismo Inclusivo - o turismo aquático. Notavelmente, foram a liderança do ministério do turismo e a indústria do turismo na Índia que aceleraram a formalização dessa abordagem como os Princípios Waypoint-Backstrom.
Esses princípios, primeiramente publicados no periódico Design for All India do Instituto Indiano de Tecnologia, também começa com uma afirmação inabalável dos Sete Princípios do Design Universal. Daí por diante, eles especificam áreas de ênfase particular no design inclusivo num ambiente marinho.
Soni Smarajan é um designer de produtos turísticos indiano e vice-presidente de uma empresa de gerenciamento de destinos turísticos. Ele escreveu um artigo intitulado "A Criação de um Produto Turístico Inclusivo: Desafios na Índia". Nesse artigo, ele observa que avanços na medicina podem fazer com que algumas deficiências desapareçam, enquanto que o uso em excesso de novas tecnologias como os teclados de computador e os joysticks por parte dos jovens pode tornar outras deficiências mais comuns. Ele sugere, como um caminho apontando para o futuro, a orientação do Design Universal de um modo flexível e centrada no usuário.
Desse modo, Samarajan cria um paralelo ao que se define como a "definição evolutiva de deficiência", sendo a deficiência compreendida como uma interação entre a variabilidade humana das capacidades e as respostas socialmente construídas a essas diferenças nas capacidades.
Esperamos ter apontado suficientes caminhos para a indústria do turismo, os departamentos governamentais e todos aqueles associados ao turismo para que façam com que os viajantes se sintam em casa. Mas todos esses são conselhos para os anfitriões. E quanto aos receptores desses esforços, as pessoas com deficiência? Para elas, eis o que gostaríamos de dizer:
"Façam as viagens que sempre quiseram fazer. Sejam as pessoas que preferem ultrapassar barreiras a esperar que elas desapareçam. Sejam turistas que enfrentam os desafios do turismo com senso de humor e espírito de aventura." Bon voyage!
I encourage Rolling Rains readers to respond to Liz's post on Travels with Pain below.
On Tuesday January 25, sometime in the late afternoon, I collapsed in a bathroom at Atlanta International Airport.
After a red-eye flight from California to Florida, an uncomfortable night spent not sleeping much inside a dirty motel room next door to a bunch of people having a drug party, a 4-day cruise on an enormous and confusing-to-navigate ship (ironically named theNavigator of the Seas), SATH World Congress activities including 6+ hours spent sitting bolt upright in uncomfortable chairs, the stress associated with giving two speeches, an active in-port day on Cozumel, another night in the bad motel after sunburning myself on the beach in Ft. Lauderdale, and a coach-class flight from Ft. Lauderdale to Atlanta, it seemed that my body had had enough. While in the bathroom stall, a severe pain spike started up. At the sink, I got nauseous. Then my legs weakened and down I went onto the white tile floor.
I had not lost consciousness and was thinking rationally between massive spikes of pain. But after a couple of minutes, when somebody found me, I couldn't speak coherently.
OK, so I followed instructions and kept this quiet until now. We are still compiling data for the "third half" of this resource - Northern California.
Exploring California's spectacular 1,100-mile-long coast can be a challenge for people who need a fairly level and firm path of travel--be they wheelchair riders, parents pushing strollers, or people who use canes or walkers. That's why we created this thoroughly researched online travel guide, with detailed information about a wide variety of sites, to help you make informed choices that suit your particular needs. (For more about our process and criteria, see How To Use This Site.
Among many adventures that await you are rolling across the sand in a beach wheelchair, fishing from an accessible pier, hiking an accessible trail along an urban waterfront or remote stretch of shoreline, viewing wildlife from a boardwalk, and picnicking among redwoods or on a blufftop, with waves crashing against rocks below. As you explore our beautiful coast, keep in mind that it is a priceless but fragile natural treasure in need of our protection. To learn more about the coast and how you can become involved in its future, see our Resources page.
Actually, I would love to attend CSUN's 25th Annual International Technology & Persons with
Disabilities Conference! There is nothing like it anywhere in the world when it comes to technology and disability. There are always new products, projects, and contacts to make it worthwhile. And it is only a short flight from hoe for me.
But I am not going this year because I have the privilege of working with Benetech.
Benetech specializes in using technology to address unmet social needs using a model similar to a technology startup - grounded in their Return on Humanity business model:
Together with partners and supporters worldwide, we use technology innovation and business expertise to solve unmet social needs. Leveraging the intellectual capital and resources of Silicon Valley, we create solutions that are truly life-changing. Our global endeavors have been instrumental in improving literacy, human rights and landmine detection. With expanded support, we can accomplish much more.
If you want to volunteer as a book scanner or to describe graphics; if you are a publisher with books to donate to their online catalog of DAISY-fornatted works, or if you want to support their work financially have a look here:
With photos from the second half of the past decade here is a photo essay on what sights there are to see from a wheelchair with the help of friends and the investment of industry stakeholders.